Isinxibo sase-Australia

Umfazi Womthonyama eSydney

I-Australia yahlaliswa okokuqala ngabaseBritane ngasekupheleni kwenkulungwane yeshumi elinesibhozo. Amagosa angenayo, amabanjwa, kunye nabahlali basemva kwexesha beza neendlela zokunxiba kunye nezinto abazithandayo ngokuchasene nesinxibo sabo babemi bomthonyama. Ukuphawula imbali yesizwe yakudala kwabhidaniswa nokutolikwa kwenkcubeko phakathi kwabafikayo nabantu bomthonyama balapha. Ngokunikwa indlela apho i-Australia yathinjwa ngayo, abantu abamhlophe base-Australia baye babonisa ukuthembela ngamandla kwi-Yurophu, e-United Kingdom, e-India, e-United States, kwaye, kamva e-China, kwimpahla yokunxiba, amalaphu, iingcinga zesitayile kunye nobuchule bokuvelisa. Enye into eyothusayo yeyokuba ifashoni yasekuqaleni yase-Australia yayivela e-France endaweni ye-Bhritane enkulu, enerekhodi eqhubekayo yempembelelo yase-Paris kwizambatho nakwimishini yokususa ubuncinci ukusukela kwiminyaka ye-1820 ukuya kuthi ga ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yoo-1950. Kwangelo xesha, imidlalo yezemidlalo e-ethe-ethe kunye nolonwabo e-United States ibingumthombo obalulekileyo wokhuthazo lwabayili base-Australia abalungele ukunxiba. Kuyimpazamo, nangona kunjalo, ukujonga isinxibo sase-Australia njengohlobo lwephondo lwamanye amazwe, nangona kukho inyani kolu luvo.



Ngelixa umntu enokuthi akhombe ngaphandle kwemizekelo embalwa yeengubo ezaziwayo zase-Australia, isazisi sama-Australia siboniswa ngempahla engaphaya koku, kumxube ontsonkothileyo ngamanye amaxesha izinto ezifihlakeleyo kunye nokuziphatha okunxulumene noko okucela umngeni ekuqondeni iklasi. Iziphumo zemozulu ngokuqinisekileyo zidlala indima, njengoko kunjalo nakwimpembelelo yobomi bokuqala emhlabeni nakwiindawo zegolide. Kodwa kwaneempahla zase-Australia, ezinje ngemozulu yonke iDryzabone idyasi, ayinxitywanga kwilizwe lonke; bekusoloko kukho icandelo lommandla kwimpahla e-Australia, kunye nokwahluka kwemetropolitan kunye neendawo zasemaphandleni. Vala ubudlelwane neAsia kunye nabaphambukeli kubandakanya amaGrike kunye namaSilamsi, kunye nezenzo zabo zesiko, kongeza ubungakanani ngakumbi kumfanekiso wengubo yase-Australia. Isinxibo sabemi bomthonyama, uninzi lwabo luhlelelekileyo kwaye bahlala kwiindawo ezikude nezixeko, abanamandla okuthenga iimpahla ezintsha, zongeza ezinye iindawo zokuntsokotha kumfanekiso opheleleyo wabantu abanxibileyo, nabanxibayo e-Australia.



Ulwabiwo-mali kwisinxibo

Bonisa kunye nempahla yokugweba

Impahla yokuGweba kunye neMiboniso yoRegistry





isayina umntu oneentloni uyakuthanda

Kude kwaba li-1990s, ukufundwa kwesinxibo nefashoni e-Australia bekumakishwe yimfundo encinci, esinye sezizathu kukungakhathalelwa kwenkcubeko ngokwesiko elinxulunyaniswa nomdla wabasetyhini. Ubume bendalo obungqongqo kwimimandla yasemaphandleni, ngakumbi elawulwa ngamadoda, kwakuthetha ukuba isinxibo esisefashonini sasidla ngokubekwa phambili. Amadoda ase-Australia ngokwembali azingombile ngokungakhathalelwa kweenkcukacha zembonakalo, ngokubhekisele koku kungahambelani nobudoda. Ngelixa le conservatism yatshintsha ngokuphawulekayo ngokwandiswa kokuhlala ezidolophini, kunye nokujongwa kokuthanda izinto ezibonakalayo ekuhlaleni emva kweminyaka yoo-1980, ukungakhathalelwa kwezambatho kubonakala ngathi kuye kwaqhubeka ngokungathandabuzeki malunga nefashoni uqobo. Ngaphandle kwezinto ezibonakalayo, ezinje ngePowerhouse Museum eSydney, iimyuziyam kunye neegalari zobugcisa zibonise ukuba nomdla omncinci ekuqokeleleni ilokhwe yase-Australia, ngakumbi impahla yemihla ngemihla. Ukuqokelelwa kwempahla yezohlwayo kukodwa. Yonke le nto ibangele ukuba kungabikho semthethweni kulo mbandela, into iyalungiswa kancinci njengoko i-Australia ifumana ukuzithemba kwiimveliso zeshishini layo lefashoni kunye nokubonisa ukunxiba kweenkwenkwezi zemidlalo bhanyabhanya kunye nabantu bezemidlalo.

Amanqaku afanelekileyo

Isinxibo kunye nabantu baseAustralia bokuqala

Ngelixa abahlali bamakoloniyali babethatha iimpahla njengendlela yokubonisa amandla nodumo, akunjalo nakubantu bomthonyama baseOstreliya. Ukwahluka ngokungafaniyo kunye nokungayamkeli inkqubo yempahla yaseNtshona, inkxalabo yabo ibe kwaye ijolise kubumbano loluntu, umhombiso, okanye inkcaso yezopolitiko. Kubomi besintu, abemi bomthonyama bahamba benganxibanga, ngaphandle kweengaroo kunye ne-opossum, beziphawula imizimba yabo ngombala womhlaba, behombise ngezixhobo zemisonto yengingqi, iigobolondo, amaxolo kunye namagqabi. Nangona kunjalo, amagosa aseburhulumenteni, abavangeli basemazweni, kunye nabefundisi bazama ukunyanzela abantu baseNtshona ukuba banxibe, besebenzisa yona njengendlela yokunyusa umgangatho kwaye bahlala befumana umvuzo. Ukusetyenziswa okunyanzelekileyo kwengubo yaseYurophu kube negalelo ekunciphiseni kweendlela zabantu bomthonyama zokwenza iimpahla zabo kwaye phantse kube negalelo kwiingxaki zabo zempilo yokuqala. Kwii-2000s zokuqala, uninzi lwabantu bomthonyama banxiba iimpahla ezinesimbo saseNtshona, nangona kwiindawo ezikude, iipateni zengingqi yeT-shirt, isinxibo, kunye nokunxitywa kwesikhafu kuyabonakala. Ezinye zezinto ezinxitywayo zaseNtshona, ezinje ngomnqwazi weAkubra kunye nesigqubuthelo sokuluka (beanie), ziye zafakwa kwisithethe senkcubeko yemveli.



Amagqabantshintshi ngengubo yabasetyhini baseMelbourne

'Ndiyathanda ukuba iimodare zaseFransi zenze uhlobo oluthile lwesinxibo kwincasa yase-Australia…. Yikhompawundi yecocotte kunye neMelika '(Twopeny, iphe. 75).

Ukusukela ngeminyaka yoo-1960, urhulumente wase-Australia wakhuthaza abantu bomthonyama ukuba benze kwaye bathengise amalaphu abo, isikipa, kunye noyilo lobucwebe njengendlela yokufumana ukwanela. Ukusukela ngeminyaka yoo-1980, ezinye iingcali zaba ngabayili befashoni ngokwazo njengoBronwyn Bancroft, uLenore Dembski, kunye noRobyn Caughlan, umyili wokuqala wemveli ukubonisa ilayini yokunxiba kwiMercedes Australian Fashion Week ngo-2003. Umsebenzi wezi zinto abaqulunqi, bexinzelela ukuyilwa kwendwangu engqindilili, banikezela isalathiso esinomdla kwifashoni yanamhlanje eqhelekileyo. Kweminye imizekelo, inkampani ephumeleleyo iBalarinji, kunye nabaqambi baseYurophu abanjengoJenny Kee, uLinda Jackson, kunye noPeter Morrissey, banayo kwaye bayasebenzisana ngokwenkcubeko, kwimeko yokugqibela besebenzisa amalaphu ayilwe ngumculi wemveli uJacinta Numina Waugh.



Ukutyikitya isazisi saseAustralia

Indoda yaseOstreliya inxibe iimpahla zemveli zasendle

Ukunxiba amatyholo emveli



Ukusukela ngamaxesha okoloniyali, isinxibo sase-Australia siphawulwe ngumahluko oqinileyo wengingqi. Isinxibo saseSydney sithande ukuba kufutshane naseMelika, kunye neMelbourne ngakumbi iBritane kunye nolondolozo, kunye nezixeko ezinamanzi ashushu njengeBrisbane kunye nePerth ezithanda ukuqaqamba, iimpahla zokunxiba ezichaphazeleka ikakhulu yimozulu ekhoyo. Nangona lo mahluko ungenakubizwa ngokuba yi-Australia nganye, ingingqi yenye yeendlela abantu base-Australia abazichaza ngayo. Olunye uphawu oluchazayo oluvele ngexesha lobukoloniyali bekucingelwa ukuba lingalinganiyo kwisinxibo samadoda. Inxulunyaniswa nokunxitywa kwezandla ezindala ezinamava 'ezandla,' yayiquka iimpahla zasemaphandleni ezirhabaxa kunye neendawo zegolide 'ezahluke mpela kwimpahla eqhelekileyo yasezidolophini. Lo mthi uqukethe iminqwazi yeklabishi (amagqabi esundu) okanye iminqwazi evakala iminqwazi, kamva umnqwazi we-Akubra, istrock frocks, ihempe ezihloliweyo, kunye neebhulukhwe kunye neebhutsi ezilukhuni. Intsomi ikhule ijikeleze le mpahla yobudoda, ukuyithatha njenge-Australia, nangona oku bekungenjalo kwilokhwe yabasetyhini. Iinkampani, kubandakanya i-RM Williams kunye neBlundstone iibhutsi, ziyaqhubeka ukukhuthaza le ntsomi, kwaye zithengise iinguqulelo zempahla yazo kwilizwe liphela, kodwa kule mihla kuzo zombini isini hayi kuphela ukunxiba emaphandleni.

Hlamba kwaye uhambe ngeenwele ngaphezulu kwe-50

Ukunambitheka kweempawu zase-Australia kunye nezikimu zemveli zemibala yokunxiba kunye neempahla zokudada zazibonakala kwii-1940s. Kodwa yayiyiminyaka yee-1970 eyaphawula indawo ethe tyaba kwimbali yeefashoni zase-Australia. UJenny Kee kunye neqabane lakhe uLinda Jackson, owaseka iFlamingo Park boutique eSydney ngo-1973, wasungula isimbo esitsha senxibo yobugcisa ethi, phakathi kwezinye iimpembelelo zothando, kamva yanika imbeko kwizityalo nezilwanyana zase-Australia. Kwakulityala kuyilo lwabantu bomthonyama ababesebenzisana nabo, okanye abanye banokuthi baxhatshazwe. Esi shumi leminyaka silandelayo sabona inani leenkampani zase-Australia zifikelela kwinqanaba lokuphumelela kwintengiso yamanye amazwe. Oku kubandakanya iCoogi kunye neLizwe Road, enezinxibo ezikumgangatho ophezulu kwimibala 'yendalo', ikhuthaza izinto ezibizwa ngokuba ngamaxabiso asemaphandleni, kunye neivenkile eUnited States ngo-1985. Ukuthandwa kwemizobo eqaqambileyo, ephefumlelweyo yase-Australia, ekuphakameni kwayo Ekupheleni kweminyaka yee-1980, yalahla ukunxiba yonke imihla ekuqaleni kweminyaka elishumi ezayo kunye nokuqala kokuthandwayo okuncinci. Zintsalela zeli xesha lihleliyo, ikakhulu kwizambatho ezenzelwe intengiso yabakhenkethi.

Udidi kunye nokuma kweNtlalo

Ukusukela kwiminyaka yokuqala yobukoloniyali, uxinzelelo olubonakalayo lwalubonakala kwindlela abahlali baseOstreliya ababonisa ngayo isikhundla sentlalo ngokunxiba. Imbali yamakoloniyali ityebile kwiiakhawunti zokuchazwa kokungalunganga koluntu. Olunye loxinzelelo lwaluvela kwiingxaki abantu abangabaziyo ababenazo kwiimpawu zeklasi. Kwavela nakwintsomi eyayixhaphakileyo yokuncipha kweklasi, kudityaniswa nokwazi okuthe ngqo kokuma kwenqanaba labemi. Eminye yokunqongophala kokungafaniyo kweklasi okunxulumene nokungabikho sikweni kokunxibelelana kwezentlalo kunye nolawulo lwendlela yokuphila evulekileyo; ezinye izizathu zikhombe kwinani elincinci, ngamanye amaxesha elijonge ngaphakathi. Ngelixa abantu base-Australia abaphila ngokwesini nesini kunokuthiwa basuke ekungakhathaleleni okuqhelekileyo kwifashoni ephezulu, baye kwinto efana notyalo-mali lokuzonwabisa ekubonakaliseni isitayile, kwanokubonakala okungcolileyo, okokuqala sisiphumo semali esandula ukufunyanwa. Umzekelo, abantu baseAustralia babonisa ubumnandi bempahla kwiminyhadala ekhethekileyo, efana nemitshato kunye nokuzimasa iintlanganiso zomdyarho, nditsho nokuzonwabisa, kodwa kwangaxeshanye bakhetha ukungacwangciswa kwempahla nokunxiba. Olunye uchulumanco luvela kwindlela ephosakeleyo 'ye-larrikinism' kuzo zonke izini. Eli ligama laseOstreliya elithetha uhlobo lokungxola, ukungathobeli, okunzima kukungazinaki kwimikhwa eyamkelekileyo yokunxiba nokuziphatha.

Amashishini eeMpahla neFashoni

Uboya beMerino

Uboya begusha beMerino

Nangona ihlala ixhomekeke kwisinxibo kunye namalaphu angeniswa elizweni, ngakumbi iimpahla ezikumgangatho ophezulu, iimpahla zasekhaya, izihlangu, kunye nomzi mveliso wempahla eyolukiweyo yasekwa eMpuma Australia kungekudala emva kokuhlala okokuqala. La mashishini ebephantsi kwembali engazinzanga, nangona kude kwaba phakathi kwinkulungwane yamashumi amabini, iAustralia igcine isidumo ngokuvelisa okusemgangathweni, impahla entle kunye namalaphu. Ngokukhawuleza emva kweMfazwe yesibini (II) yeLizwe, amalaphu oboya basekhaya anyuselwa ngempumelelo, ekuqaleni yiBhodi yase-Australia yoboya kwaye kamva i-Australia Wool Corporation, kodwa imeko ihleli ingazinzanga ekupheleni komgangatho wefashoni. Ngelixa ushishino lwefashoni lweentlobo luvele ngenkulungwane yamashumi amabini, eyona ndawo iphambili kurhwebo lwerag lwenzeka kwiminyaka elishumi kwangoko emva kweMfazwe yesibini (II) yeHlabathi.

Nangona kunjalo, ukusukela nge1960s, amashishini elaphu kunye nempahla eOstreliya aqala ukuphulukana nesabelo sentengiso ababenaso; Idityaniswe nokukhusela, ishishini eliqhelekileyo, ngaphandle kwezinye njengeelebheli zePrue Acton kunye neTrent Nathan, zaqala ukwehla okukhulu. Ukunqongophala kwemali engapheliyo, inani elincinci, ukunqongophala kokukwazi ukuthengisa iimpahla ezinobungakanani obuphezulu kunye nokunyusa irhafu ngokuthe ngcembe ukusukela ekupheleni kweminyaka yoo-1970, kwenza ukuba amashishini ase-Australia anciphise kwaye angakhuphisani ngokungenisa ngaphakathi, ngakumbi ezo zivela e-China. Elokugqibela laba lelona lizwe lingumthombo wengubo ngeminyaka yoo-1980. Ukwehla kweshishini lendawo kuqhubekile. Ukulandela ezona ntengiso zintle zokuthengisa kwirekhodi ngo-1996, kwavulwa iMercedes yeVenkile yeFashoni yaseSydney eSydney, kunyaka olandelayo iMelbourne Fashion Festival. Zombini zazingumzamo wokubonisa iimveliso zase-Australia kunye nokuzoba abathengi bamanye amazwe. Ngelixa eli linge lingakhange libe nempumelelo engathethekiyo, uninzi lwabayili abatsha, abatsha base-Australia benze ifuthe elinamandla eYurophu nase-United States phakathi kwiminyaka yoo-1990. Oku kubandakanya uCollette Dinnigan, u-Akira Isogawa owazalelwa e-Asiya, owaqala ukubonakala ngo-1996, iimpahla ezimdaka zika-Sass kunye ne-Bide (ezasungulwa ngo-1999), u-Easton Pearson, kunye noyilo lwe-fusion oludibanisa iinkcubeko zemveli zase-Indiya nezase-Afrika nezimvo zangoku, kunye ne-Morrissey (owasungula isolo ngo-1997). Ngaphandle kwale mpumelelo, imfashini yase-Australia ihlala ihlelelekile, isazisi sayo sisephantsi kothethathethwano kunye nolwamkelo lwangaphandle phesheya. Ngapha koko, ukuthengisa kukhuphiswano lwehlabathi, umbono wokuba ilizwe lishenxisiwe kumaziko aphambili esitayile, kunye namaxesha onyaka angahambelaniyo noMntla weIkhweyitha ngokubanzi kuye kwanda endaweni yokunciphisa iingxaki zeshishini.

Iingubo zokuzonwabisa

I-Australia ayothusi ukuba iphumelele kakhulu kwiindawo zolonwabo kunye neempahla zaselwandle. Ishishini lokuqubha lasekuhlaleni linokuchongwa kwangoko kwinkulungwane yamashumi amabini, kungekudala liqiniswe bubukho babavelisi beempahla zokudada baseMelika abanjengoJantzen noCole waseCalifornia. Ngomnyaka we-1928, ileyibhile ye-Speedo yadalwa, kwaye le nkampani yaqhubeka ukuba yenye yezona mpawu ziphumelelayo zeempahla zase-Australia, zithunyelwa eMelika ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yee-1950. Uninzi lwabaqulunqi bempahla yokuqubha baba ngamagama asekhaya njengoBrian Rochford, uPaula Stafford waseGold Coast, kunye noNicole Zimmermann. Mhlawumbi okubaluleke ngakumbi, iinkampani ezinxibe ulutsha ezinxibe ulusu ezivelisa imibala eqaqambileyo, eyonwabisayo enje ngeRip Curl, iBillabong, iKambo (kunye noyilo lwayo olumangalisayo olusekwe ngo-1984 nguDare Jennings), kunye neQuik-isilivere baye zimele isimbo sase-Australia ngempumelelo kakhulu kumabala emidlalo aphesheya. Ewe, esona sithako siphambili kumbono ogqubayo we-Australia njengohlanga lwangaphandle, olungenazithintelo, ngumzimba oqaqambileyo onkinki, owonyuswe ziimpahla zokudada ezinomtsalane.

ozisa ntoni emngcwabeni

Bona kwakho Isinxibo sobuhlanga; Iimpahla zokudada.

Uluhlu lweencwadi

UFletcher, uMarion. Indleko eOstreliya, 1788-1901. EMelbourne, e-Australia: I-Oxford University Press, ngo-1984. Iakhawunti yokuqala enzulu yesinxibo sobukoloniyali kodwa kugxininiswa kwimfashini yongxowankulu.

UJoel, uAlexandra. Parade: Ibali leFashoni eOstreliya. ESydney, e-Australia: HarperCollins, 1998. Umbhalo ugxile kwisitayile sexesha kwifashoni ephezulu. Ukusetyenziswa okungqongqo kwethiyori. Inkqubo ehlaziyiweyo, eyongeziweyo.

UMaynard, uMargaret. Ifashoni yePenury: Nxiba njengeNkcubeko yokuziqhelanisa ne-Australia yaseKoloni. ICambridge, UK: ICambridge University Press, ngo-1994. Isifundo sokuqala kwizifundo zokunxiba kobukoloniyali kuzo zonke iiklasi.

-. 'Isinxibo Semveli.' Kwi I-Oxford Companion kubugcisa beNkcubeko kunye neNkcubeko. Ihlelwe nguSylvia Kleinert kunye noMargo Neale. EMzantsi Melbourne, eOstreliya: IYunivesithi yaseOxford Press, 2000. Iakhawunti yokuqala engeyiyo eyokuthambeka kwabantu besinxibo sabemi baseOstreliya.

-. Ngaphandle komgca: Abafazi baseAustralia kunye nesitayile. ISydney, eOstreliya: IYunivesithi yaseNew South Wales Press, 2001. Isicatshulwa sokuqala esibanzi kwisinxibo sabasetyhini benkulungwane yamashumi amabini nakwishishini lefashoni e-Australia, kubandakanya neakhawunti yabayili bemveli.

Amabini, R. E. N. Ubomi beDolophu e-Australia ngo-1883. ISydney, e-Australia: IYunivesithi yaseSydney Press, ngo-1973.