Iindidi zeSayensi

Iiflask zaselebhu

Iindidi ezahlukeneyo zesayensi zihlala zahlulwahlulwahlulwahlulwahlulwahlulwahlulwahlulwahlulwahlulwahlulwahlulwahlulwahlulwa njengesayensi yobomi, inzululwazi yomzimba kunye nesayensi yomhlaba. Nangona kuninzi ukungqubana phakathi kwesayensi, ukwazi umahluko phakathi kohlobo ngalunye kubalulekile kumfundi wesayensi osakhasayo.



indlela yokwenza umgibe kanomeva

IiSayensi zoBomi

Inzululwazi yobomi iquka nantoni na ephilayo kubandakanya, abantu, izilwanyana, izityalo ... kwanezinto ezincinci njengebhaktheriya okanye intsholongwane.



Amanqaku afanelekileyo
  • Ukhuseleko lweGoggles kwiKlasi yeSayensi
  • Amakhondo kwiNzululwazi yendawo
  • Nguwuphi owona mhlaba ulungele ukukhula kwezityalo?

Ibhayoloji

  • Imodeli yokwakheka Umzimba -I-Anatomy ichaphazelekayo kwifom kunye nokusebenza kwezilwanyana, izityalo kunye nabantu.
  • Biology yeseli -Ibhayoloji yeselula luphononongo lweseli njengeyunithi epheleleyo.
  • Chronobiology Le ntsimi yebhayoloji ivavanya indlela izinto ezijikelezayo kwizinto eziphilayo ezinxibelelana ngayo nokusingqongileyo.
  • Uphuhliso lwebhayoloji -Ibhayoloji yophuhliso luphononongo lwenkqubo yophuhliso ukusuka kwi-zygote ukuya kulwakhiwo olupheleleyo. Ikwabandakanya umbungu, oluvavanyo lokukhula kombungu.
  • Imfuza - Imfuza sisifundo semfuza kunye nelifa. Ihlala yahlulwe yangamacandelwana aliqela:
    • Epigenetics - Oososayensi abafunda i-epigenetics bafunda utshintsho olunokubakho, ezinje ngendlela ufuzo olunikeziweyo oluvakala ngayo, ezibangelwa ziindlela ezingezizo ezotshintsho kulandelelwano lwe-DNA
    • Imfuza -I-Genomics luluqeqesho kwimfuza echaphazelekayo kwimephu yemfuza yomntu.
  • Imbali -Imbali yakhe sisifundo se-anatomy yeeseli kunye nezicubu zezityalo nezilwanyana.
  • Inguquko yebhayiloji -Izinto zebhayoloji zokuzivelela zifunda ngemvelaphi notshintsho kwiintlobo ezahlukeneyo ngokuhamba kwexesha. Ezi nzululwazi zijonga indlela utshintsho lwemfuza, iintlobo zezinto eziphilayo eziguqula ngayo, kwaye ngokubanzi zifuna ukurekhoda imbali yobomi emhlabeni.
  • Photobiology -I-Photobiology sisifundo senzululwazi sokunxibelelana kokukhanya kunye nezinto eziphilayo. Intsimi ibandakanya ukufundwa kwefotosinthesisi, ukuqhubekeka kokubonakalayo, kunye ne-bioluminescence, ukubiza ngambalwa.

Zezityalo

Zezityalo ichazwa ngokubanzi njengophando lwezenzululwazi ngezityalo. Kukho iindawo ezahlukeneyo zobungcali.





  • Umphandi ongumfazi IBryology -I-Bryology yindawo yokufunda, i-hepatic, kunye neempondo.
  • Unyango -Dendrology luphononongo lwezityalo ezinobunzima.
  • Lichenology - Iingcali ze-Lichenologists zifunde i-lichen, eziyi-fungus ye-symbiotic ene-photosynthesizing partner.
  • Mycology - I-Mycology sisifundo sefungi kunye nobunye ubomi bezityalo ezivelisa kwakhona nge-spores kwaye azenzi ukutya kwazo nge-photosynthesis.
  • Palynology - I-Palynology sisifundo somungu kunye ne-spores. Ngokwenkcazo, oku kunokuba kwiindidi zezinto eziphilayo ngoku okanye kwifom yefosili.
  • I-Phycology - I-Phycology sisifundo se-algae.

Indalo

Indalo Ufunda ngendlela izinto eziphilayo ezinxibelelana ngayo nendalo esingqongileyo.

  • Ihlabathi eliluhlaza Izifundo ezizenzekelayo -Iinjongo eziphambili ze-autecology kukufunda uhlobo olunye ngaphakathi kwendalo. Izazinzulu apha zifuna ukuqonda indlela yokuziphatha, iimfuno, kunye nembali yendalo yezilwanyana ngokufunda izinto ezinje ngokukhanya, ukufuma, kunye nezondlo ezikhoyo.
  • Ubume be-Benthic - Igama elithi 'benthic' libhekisa kummandla osemazantsi olwandle. I-Benthic ecology ijonge kwinto elawula iyantlukwano, ubume, kunye nokusebenza kwendalo ephantsi kolwandle.
  • Ulondolozo lweNdalo - Isayensi yolondolozo inomdla ekufumaneni iindlela zokuphepha ukuphela kwezilwanyana.
  • I-ecophysiology Oososayensi kweli candelo bavavanya uhlengahlengiso lomntu kwimeko-bume yakhe.
  • Ecotoxicology -Iingcali ze-ecotoxicologists zifundisisa iziphumo zeekhemikhali eziyityhefu kubantu abahlukeneyo, kubandakanya umhlaba, amanzi acocekileyo kunye nendalo yaselwandle. Ngokwesiqhelo ezi khemikhali zinetyhefu zizinto ezingcolisayo, kodwa ngamanye amaxesha zinokubakho ngokwendalo.
  • Macroecology -Iingcali zeMacroecologists zijonga i-ecology ngokwembono ebanzi, zikhangela iipateni ngokubanzi kumgangatho omkhulu womhlaba, obonakala ngokukhangela ubudlelwane beenkcukacha-manani ukucacisa ukwabiwa kwezinto ezahlukeneyo zembali ngokwembono yejografi. Isichasi se-macroecology yi-microecology, ejonga iinkqubo ze-ecological kumzuzu okanye kwinqanaba lasekhaya.
  • I-Microbial Ecology Njengoko igama lisitsho, ii-microbial ecologists zijonga imeko yeentsholongwane kunye nendlela ezinxibelelana ngayo.
  • Imolekyuli yeecology -Le sayensi ifuna ukuqonda i-ecology ngedatha yemfuza. Ngenxa yenkqubela phambili yanamhlanje kwimfuza, izazinzulu zinokulinganisa ukufana kwemvelaphi kunye nokwahluka kubemi abanikiweyo kwaye baphendule imibuzo malunga nokuvela kwabahlali ngokunxulumene nokusingqongileyo.
  • I-Synecology -I-Synecology ijolise kunxibelelwano phakathi kweentlobo zezinto ezikhoyo phakathi koluntu lwendalo.
  • Paleoecology - Iipaleoecologists zisebenzisa uphononongo lweefosili ukuqonda i-ecology yeentlobo kwimbali yendalo.
  • Ukubuyisela i-ecology -Ukubuyiselwa kwezinto eziphilayo ngokujonga indlela yokubuyisela iisayithi eziphazamisekileyo okanye ezonakalisiweyo, ngokubanzi zizinto ezenziwa ngabantu.

Iyeza

Iyeza isayensi yokuphilisa kwaye ineempawu ezininzi ezizodwa.



  • Iipilisi kunye neepilisi Endocrinology I-Endocrinologists ifunda ngenkqubo ye-endocrine kwaye ichonge kwaye inyange izifo. Oku kubandakanya izinto ezinje ngeswekile, izifo ze-thyroid, kunye ne-osteoporosis.
  • Izifo -I-Epidemiology lisebe lesayensi elifunda ngonobangela kunye nokusasazwa kwezifo.
  • Gerontology -I-Gerontology sisifundo senkqubo yokuguga. Izazinzulu kweli candelo zixhalabile ngempilo ngokubanzi, kunye nokuba sempilweni ngokweemvakalelo, njl.
  • Ugonyo - I-Immunology luphononongo lwayo yonke imiba yenkqubo yomzimba yokuzikhusela. Izazinzulu kweli candelo zijonga izinto ezinje ngendlela amajoni omzimba asebenza ngayo, indlela yokunyusa amajoni omzimba, kunye neenkqubo apho buthathaka amajoni omzimba.
  • Inzululwazi -Iinzululwazi ngeeurososistis zifunda ubume kunye nophuhliso lwenkqubo yeemvakalelo. Banenkxalabo bobabini ngendlela esebenza ngayo inkqubo yovalo, kunye nendlela yokulungisa imicimbi njengoko bevela kokubini kwasekuzalweni kunye nakwintlungu.
  • Oncology - I-Oncology sisifundo somhlaza, kubandakanya ukuba siqala njani kwaye sisasazeka njani. Ezi nzululwazi ziyazinikela ekufundeni ukuba umhlaza usasazeka njani kunye neendlela zokuwumisa okanye ukuwunyanga.
  • Izifo I-Pathology luphononongo lwezizathu, iinkqubo, indalo kunye nophuhliso lwezifo. Iipathologists zixhalabile ngokufunda ukuba ukusasazeka kwesifo kusebenza njani ukuze bakwazi ukuvelisa amayeza okanye unyango olusebenzayo.
  • Ikhemesti -Oosokhemesti bafunda iziphumo zamachiza kunye namayeza okwenziwa, kunye nendlela yokulungiselela kunye nokusebenzisa amayeza athethiweyo. Ezi nzululwazi zifunda ngendlela yokwenza amayeza akhuseleke kwaye asebenze ngakumbi, kunye nokwenza amayeza amatsha okunyanga izifo ezahlukeneyo.

Microbiology

Iingcali zeMicrobiologists izinto zokufunda. Uninzi lwezi lincinci kakhulu kwaye lufuna ukukhuliswa ukuze kubonwe ngamehlo.

  • Umzimba Aerobiology -I-Aerobiology sisifundo samasuntswana ebhayoloji asemoyeni kunye nentshukumo yawo kunye nefuthe lawo kwimpilo yabantu, yezilwanyana, kunye neyezityalo. Ezi nzululwazi zixhalabile ubukhulu becala ngomungu kunye ne-spores yefungus kunye nendlela echaphazela ngayo impilo yabantu abanolwazelelelo lomungu.
  • Intsholongwane -Bacteriologists bafunda iibhaktheriya. Uqeqesho lunezicelo ezahlukeneyo kubandakanya nokwenziwa kwamachiza ukunyanga usulelo lwebacteria, kunye nophuhliso lokugonya.
  • Imolekyuli yebhayoloji -Izinto zebhayoloji zeMolekyuli zifundisisa iinkqubo zeemolekyuli emva kokubhalwa kweRNA kunye nendlela ekhutshelwa ngayo ijika ibe yiprotein. Le nzululwazi igubungela kakhulu i-biochemistry kunye ne-genetics.
  • Intsholongwane - I-Virology sisifundo seentsholongwane. Injongo yezi nzululwazi kukufumanisa iindlela ezisebenza ngazo, nendlela yokubaphatha.

Zoology

Zoology , ngamafutshane, sisifundo sezilwanyana. Oku akubandakanyi nje izinto ezinje ngokuba zahlelwa njani, kodwa kunye nokomzimba, izilwanyana, ukukhula kunye nokuziphatha. Amasebe amancinci ezilwanyana aquka:



  • Unonkala lweHermit ICarcinology - ICarcinology sisifundo secrustaceans.
  • Cetology - Iingcali ze-Cetologists zifundisisa iminenga, ihlengethwa kunye ne-porpoises.
  • Unyango lwezinto eziphilayo - I-Entomology sisifundo sezinambuzane.
  • Herpetology -I-Herpetology luphononongo lwee-amphibians kunye nezirhubuluzi.
  • Ichthyology - Ichthyology sisifundo sentlanzi.
  • Malacology -Iingcali zeMalacologists zifunde iimollusks.
  • Ugcino - Isigama sifundo zizilwanyana ezanyisayo.
  • I-Ornithology -I-Ornithology luphononongo lwesayensi lweentaka.
  • Ubuncinci - I-Primatology luphononongo lwenzululwazi lwee-primates.
  • IParasitology -I-Parasitology sisifundo sezidleleli, imikhosi yazo, kunye nobudlelwane phakathi kwazo.
  • IProtozoology -Iprotozoology sisifundo sokufunda kweprotozoans.

IiFizikhali Sayensi

Inzululwazi yenzululwazi isebenza kwezo zinto zingaphiliyo.



Ngeenkwenkwezi

Ngeenkwenkwezi luphononongo lwendawo, njengeeplanethi, iinkwenkwezi, kunye nezinye, izinto ezingezizo ezasemhlabeni.

  • Indlela yobisi kunye neteleskopu IAeronautics I-Aeronautics yisayensi yokubhabha. Oososayensi kweli candelo bafunda ngendlela iinqwelomoya ezibhabha ngayo ngenjongo yokwakha iimodeli ezingcono, ezikhawulezayo, nezisebenza ngokukuko.
  • Astrobiology - Izazi ngeenkwenkwezi, ngamafutshane, zifunda ngobomi kwindalo iphela. Imibuzo abafuna ukuyisombulula ibandakanya izinto ezinje ngokuba ingaba bukhona ubomi kwenye indawo ngaphandle komhlaba, zeziphi iimeko ezifunekayo ukuze ubomi bubekhona, kwaye zeziphi izinto ezigqithileyo zeemeko eziyimfuneko ebomini?
  • Astrochemistry -I-Astrochemistry luphononongo lwezinto zeekhemikhali ezifumaneka emajukujukwini. Inye into oosomachiza abasebenza kuyo kukufumana iimolekyuli ezisekwe kwikhabhoni ezinokubamba imikhondo yokuba baqala njani ubomi.
  • Astrodynamics -I-Astrodynamics sisifundo se-orbital trajectory, okanye mandithi, indlela izinto ezibhabha ngayo emajukujukwini. Ezi nzululwazi zisombulula iingxaki ezinje ngendlela yokuthumela isathelayithi kwi-orbit kunye nendlela yokuyibuyisela emhlabeni ngokukhuselekileyo.
  • Oosomajukujuku -Uluqeqesho lumalunga nokuyila nokuthumela izithuthi zasemajukujukwini. Ngelixa i-astrodynamics izikhathaza ngendlela yokugcina i-orbit, okanye ukuqikelela i-orbit, i-astronautics ichaphazelekayo noyilo lwezithuthi.
  • Astrophysics - I-Astrophysics lisebe lesayensi yesithuba esisebenzisa imithetho ye-physics kunye ne-chemistry ukuchaza ukuzalwa, ubomi, kunye nokufa kweenkwenkwezi, iiplanethi, iminyele, i-nebulae, kunye nezinye izinto kwindalo iphela. I-NASA uphawula ukuba iinjongo ze-astrophysicist kukufumanisa indlela indalo esebenza ngayo, funda indlela indalo eyaqala ngayo, kunye nokukhangela ubomi kwezinye iiplanethi.
  • I-Forensic Astronomy Izazi ngeenkwenkwezi zisebenzisa i-astronomy ukunceda ukusombulula ulwaphulo-mthetho okanye ukunikela ubungqina kumatyala embambano. Nangaliphi na ixesha ubungqina bunokufuneka malunga nokuma kwenyanga ngexesha lesiganeko, okanye indawo ezimi kuyo ezinye zezinto zasemazulwini, isazi ngeenkwenkwezi esingumphandi siyabizwa.
  • Indawo yeArchaeology -I-archaeology yendawo yindawo edibanisa i-archeology kunye ne-astronomy. Izazinzulu kule nkalo kugxilwe ekufumaneni izinto zakudala kwaye kujonge ngokubanzi ukugcina ilifa ngezinto abazifumana emajukujukwini. Nangona kunjalo, enye inomdla isicelo yearchaeology yasemajukujukwini ifumana izinto zakudala emhlabeni zisebenzisa izixhobo ezivela emajukujukwini.
  • Amayeza esithuba -Amayeza esithuba ajongene nendlela yokugcina oosomajukujuku besempilweni emajukujukwini. Enye yeenjongo eziphambili zamayeza esithuba kukuchasana neziphumo zokungakhathali esibhakabhakeni kumzimba we-astronaut.

Yokwakheka komhlaba

IJogoloji funda umhlaba - izinto zawo, iinkqubo zawo, nembali yawo. Oososayensi banokujonga kutshintsho lwemozulu okanye basebenze ukuqhubela phambili itekhnoloji eqikelela inyikima. Banokusebenzela ukufumana eyona ndawo ifanelekileyo yomgodi, indlela yokufumana amanzi phantsi komhlaba, okanye iitekhnoloji ezifanayo.

  • Vula i-geode IJeochemistry -Izazi ngokwamachiza (geochemists) zifundisisa izinto zamachiza kumatye nasezimayini, kunye nokuhamba kwezi zinto kumhlaba nakwinkqubo zamanzi. Banokusebenzisa le datha ukunceda oososayensi baqonde ukuba umhlaba utshintsha njani, bancede iinkampani zisebenzise izibonelelo zendalo, okanye zincedise neenkampani zeoyile ukuba ziyazi apho ziya kubhola khona ioyile.
  • IJeophysics -I-geophysicist ngumntu ofunda uMhlaba esebenzisa amandla omxhuzulane, amandla ombane, ombane kunye neenyikima. Banokunceda iinkampani ukuba ziqonde apho zingakha khona izakhiwo ezinkulu ezinje ngamadama, okanye banokuchitha ixesha ngaphakathi ekwenzeni iimodeli zekhompyuter. Umsebenzi wabo ubanzi kububanzi kwaye ungabandakanya ulwandle, inyikima, kunye nezinye iintlobo zesayensi.
  • Isimbiwa -Njengoko unokuthelekelela, izimbiwa ezifunda izimbiwa. Kuba izimbiwa zivela ngokwendalo kuwo wonke umhlaba, kukho izinto ezahlukeneyo ezinokuthi zenziwe ngabasebenzi bezimbiwa, kubandakanya ukusebenza kwimyuziyam, ukusebenzela iiyunivesithi ekuqhubekeni kophando, kwanokusebenzela iinkampani zabucala zemigodi.
  • UPetrology - Petrology sisifundo samatye. Kukho amacandelo amathathu aphambili epetroloji, nganye ehambelana nohlobo lwerwala elifundwayo (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic).
  • Sedimentology I-Sedimentologists ifunda intlenga (isanti, udaka, kunye nokungcola) kunye nendlela ebekwa ngayo. Abo bafunda i-sedimentology bachaphazelekayo ngokukodwa ekufumaneni i-petroli kwiindawo ezinamatye okanye iifossil. Nangona kunjalo, zininzi ezinye izicelo ezahlukeneyo. Inxulumene ne-stratigraphy, efunda amatye kunye nendlela abatshintsha ngayo.
  • IVolcanology - IVolcanology sisifundo seentaba-mlilo Iingcali zeentaba-mlilo zinethemba lokuqonda ukuba kutheni kwaye zenzeka njani iintaba-mlilo, indlela yokuqikelela ukuqhuma, iimpembelelo zazo kwimbali yoMhlaba, nendlela ezinokubachaphazela ngayo abantu nendalo.

Ulwandle

Ulwandle ijongene nezinto eziphilayo, ezomzimba kunye neekhemikhali zeelwandle zehlabathi. I-Oceanographer ixhalabile zombini ukusombulula iingxaki zepagmatic (njengendlela yokucoca ukuchitheka kweoyile okanye ukunceda izilwanyana ezisemngciphekweni), kunye nokwenza izinto ezintsha njengokufumana iintlobo ezintsha zobomi baselwandle.

  • Jellyfish elwandle Lemnology I-Limnologists ifunda ngeenkqubo zamanzi ezinje ngamachibi, imilambo, amadama, imilambo kunye nemigxobhozo. Baxhalabile kukufunda ngendlela ezi zinto zinxibelelana ngayo neendawo zokuhambisa amanzi, kwaye uqeqesho lubandakanya uninzi lwezinye iinkalo zesayensi, ezinje ngebhayoloji, chemistry kunye geology.
  • Biology yaseLwandle -Ibhayoloji yaselwandle inezigaba ezibini. Ezi biologists zifunde i-ecology yezinto eziphilayo zaselwandle kwimeko yeempawu zobume bolwandle. Ukongeza, ezinye iingcali zebhayiloji yaselwandle zijolise kwiindidi ezithile zolwandle.
  • I-Chemistry yolwandle Ikhemesti yaselwandle kukufunda ngokwenziwa kweekhemikhali kunye neenkqubo zamachiza olwandlekazi lwehlabathi.
  • I-Geology yeLwandle -Iejoloji zaselwandle zifundisisa ijiology yomgangatho wolwandle, ziqwalasele ngokukodwa iitectonics zepleyiti kunye nepaleoceanography.
  • Ubume beLwandlekazi -Izilwanyana zaselwandle zifunda iinkqubo zomzimba kunye neemeko zolwandle. Bajonge izinto ezinjengamaza, amaza, ii-eddy, iigyres, kunye namaza. Baphinde bafunde ukuhanjiswa kwesanti ngaphakathi nangaphandle kweelwandle; ukhukuliseko lonxweme; kunye nokuhlangana komoya kunye nolwandle.

IFizikiki

Yenzululwazi amandla okufunda, umba, kunye nokunxibelelana kwabo.

  • Ibhodi emnyama enophawu lwemathematika Acoustics -I-Acoustics sisifundo samaza oomatshini kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zemicimbi. Ngamanye amagama, sisifundo sesandi kwaye sinezicelo zomculo kungekuphela kunye nakwizakhiwo kodwa nakwizinto ezinje nge-SONAR, i-ultrasound yokucinga ngonyango, kunye nolawulo lwengxolo.
  • Aerodynamics -Aerodynamics sisifundo sesindululo somoya.
  • Iatomic, iMolekyuli, kunye neFizikiki yeOptical (AMO) -I-AMO luphononongo lwendlela umcimbi kunye nokukhanya okusebenzisana ngayo.
  • IFizikiki yodidi -I-Classical physics yi-physics eyandulela ukufika koomatshini abasebenza ngobuninzi. Isekwe ikakhulu kwimithetho yokuhamba kukaNewton.
  • Cryogenics - I-Cryogenics luphononongo lwamaqondo obushushu asezantsi kakhulu kunye nokuziphatha kwemathiriyeli kula maqondo obushushu. Kwinxalenye enkulu, uphando lujolise kwindlela yokugcina izinto eziphilayo.
  • Amandla Dynamics luphononongo lwezinto ezibangela intshukumo kunye notshintsho kwisindululo.
  • Umbane -I-Electromagnetism lisebe lezesayensi elijolise kwimikhosi eyenzeka phakathi kwamasuntswana afakwe ngombane. Ngobunzulu, izazinzulu kweli candelo zifunda ubudlelwane phakathi kombane kunye nemagnethi.
  • Oomatshini I-Mechanics lisebe le-physics elichaphazelekayo ekuziphatheni kwemizimba xa iphantsi kwemikhosi okanye ukufuduswa, kunye neziphumo ezilandelayo zemizimba kwimeko yazo.
  • Ithermodynamics -I-Thermodynamics sisifundo sobudlelwane phakathi kobushushu kunye namandla oomatshini.
  • IFizikiki yeNyukliya - Eli sebe lenzululwazi lijolise ekuqondeni ii-quarks kunye ne-gluons. Ngamafutshane, ifiziksi yenyukliya ifunda ngeebhloko zokwakha kunye nokunxibelelana kweatomic nuclei.
  • Ukukhanya -Optics lisebe le-physics elifunda ngokuziphatha kunye neempawu zokukhanya kunye nendlela ezinxibelelana ngayo nomba.
  • IFizum yeFiziksi -I-Quantum physics lisebe le-physics elichaphazelekayo ngokuhamba kwinqanaba le-athomu kunye ne-subatomic.

I-Chemistry

ngeleta, chemistry luphononongo lwento, iipropathi zayo, nendlela ezinxibelelana ngayo nezinye izinto okanye amandla.

  • Iiglasi zekhemikhali Uhlalutyo Chemistry -I-chemistry yohlalutyo luhlalutyo lweesampulu zezinto ukufumana ukuqonda kokudityaniswa kwemichiza kunye nolwakhiwo.
  • Ikhalori - Olu luphononongo lotshintsho lobushushu kwiinkqubo zomzimba kunye neekhemikhali.
  • I-Chemistry engaqhelekanga I-chemistry engaphiliyo luphononongo lweempawu kunye nokuphendula kwezixhobo ezingaqhelekanga. Umahluko phakathi koqeqesho lwezinto eziphilayo kunye nezinto ezingaphiliyo awuphelelanga, kwaye kukho ukugqagqana okuninzi, okona kubaluleke kakhulu kuqeqesho olungaphantsi lwechemistry yechemistry.
  • I-Organic Chemistry -I-organic chemistry luphononongo lobume, iipropathi, ukwakheka, iindlela, kunye nokuphendula kwezinto eziphilayo. Ikhompawundi yendalo ichazwa njengayo nayiphi na ikhompawundi esekwe kumathambo ekhabhoni.
  • I-Organometallic Chemistry -I-Organometallic chemistry ijonga iikhompawundi eziqulathe iibhondi phakathi kwekhabhoni kunye nesinyithi.
  • I-Polymer Chemistry -I-Polymer chemistry sisayensi eyahlukeneyo ejongene nokwenziwa kweekhemikhali kunye neempawu zeekhemikhali zepolymers okanye ii-macromolecule.
  • I-Spectroscopy -I-Spectroscopy sisifundo sokunxibelelana phakathi komcimbi kunye namandla aqingqiweyo. Inxulumene nokusasazeka kokukhanya kwento kwibala lemibala yayo.
  • Unyango ngamayeza -Isebe le-chemistry elifunda ubudlelwane phakathi kwesenzo samachiza kunye nenani lobushushu obufunxwe okanye obenziwe.

Inzululwazi yoMhlaba

Njengoko igama lisitsho, Inzululwazi yomhlaba luphononongo loMhlaba kunye nemizimba engabamelwane.

  • Imibane emininzi Ubuchwephesha bezinto eziphilayo I-Biogeochemistry iphonononga iinkqubo zomzimba, zamachiza, zebhayoloji, kunye nejoloji kunye nokuphendula okulawula ukwenziwa kunye notshintsho kwindalo esingqongileyo.
  • Imozulu -Imozulu yesayensi yimeko-bume yomhlaba. Ijolise ikakhulu ekuqondeni iimpembelelo zotshintsho lwemozulu. Iingcali zeklimatri nazo zixhalabile ngendlela yokunciphisa ezo ziphumo.
  • Glaciology -I-Glaciology sisifundo somkhenkce.
  • IHydrology -Ii-Hydrologists zijolise ekufundeni iinkqubo zamanzi zomhlaba. Bazama ukusombulula iingxaki ezinxulumene nokuba bangakanani abantu abanamanzi, umgangatho wamanzi abanawo kunye nokufumaneka kwala manzi athethiweyo.
  • Zemozulu -Imeteorology luphononongo lomhlaba kunye nefuthe lawo kwimozulu yethu.
  • Ukufundiswa kwezifundo - Pedology luphononongo lwesayensi lomhlaba.

Iindidi ezininzi zeNzululwazi

Ukongeza komzimba kunye nobomi, kukwakho isayensi yezentlalo kunye nesayensi esetyenzisiweyo. Iisayensi ezisetyenzisiweyo zibandakanya izinto ezinje ngobunjineli kunye ne-biotechnology. Zizinto ezintsha zesayensi, kodwa zinokusetyenziswa kubomi bemihla ngemihla. Inzululwazi yezentlalo sisicelo sesayensi kufundo lwabantu kwaye sibandakanya uqeqesho olufana nezinto zakudala, isayikholoji, kunye nezentlalo.